Author Archives: Jack

[Tutorial] Configuring an Azure Acitve Directory (AAD) Application to leverage multiple Reply URLs

Use Case:

I was recently asked if it is possible to configure multiple Sign-On URLs for a SalesForce application by a customer.  Per the customer, the Sign on URL and the Identifier URL are how Salesforce HR agents log in, in addition to the forms filled out via the web application. When multiple Reply URLs are configured, SSO is possible between both the agent and web application.  Without configuring multiple URLs, you will receive an error stating that the Reply URL is incorrect via the Agent or Web Application.

In this case, this tutorial will cover how to configure multiple Reply URLs for a single Azure AD Application; whether created from the Azure AD Marketplace or custom.

Here is a link to a customer on SalesForce’s forums asking a very similar question as well: https://developer.salesforce.com/forums/?id=9060G000000ICYYQA4

Configure Multiple Reply URLs in Azure AD

  1. Login to https://portal.azure.com and select Azure Active Directory
  2. Select App Registrations (even though an application may be an Enterprise application, please proceed with App registrations)
  3. Select your application from the list
  4. Select Reply URLs on the right side of the blade
  5. Add/Remove the URLs to the desired configuration and then click Save

Please note that if you do browse back to Enterprise Applications, today the portal will only reflect one-URL as of 7/24/2017.

List of schema versions for Windows Server Active Directory

Here’s the current list of Schema Versions for Active Directory on Windows Server.

OS Schema Version
Windows 2000 Server 13
Windows Server 2003 30
Windows Server 2003 R2 31
Windows Server 2008 44
Windows Server 2008 R2 47
Windows Server 2012 56
Windows Server 2012 R2 69
Windows Server 2016 87

 

You can validate the current schema version you have in your environment via PowerShell or Registry Editor.

Validate schema version via PowerShell:

Get-ADObject (Get-ADRootDSE).schemaNamingContext -Property objectVersion

In this screenshot, I have ObjectVersion equal to 69, denoting the schema has been extended for AD on Windows Server 2012 R2.

Validate schema version via Registry Editor:

  1. Click Start and search for
  2. regedit
    regedit
  3. Open up regedit and navigate to Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\NTDS\Parameters
  4. In this screenshot, I have Schema Version equal to 69, denoting the schema has been extended for AD on Windows Server 2012 R2.
    regedit - schema version

Configuring time for Azure IaaS Domain Joined Machines

Synopsis: When placing a Virtual Machine on the Azure Platform, by default it inherits time controls from the underlying hypervisor: Hyper-V.  The default behavior for these VMs is to synchronize the system clock with the host via the Hyper-V TimeSync service (VMIC) for Hyper-V hosts and guests running prior operating systems to Windows Server 2016.

Windows 2016 guests will find the most accurate clock, rather than defaulting to the host. It was for this reason that we advised to manually disable Hyper-V Time Provider setting for machines participating in a domain in Windows 2012R2 and below.  More information on Windows Server 2016 time can be found here: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/identity/ad-ds/get-started/windows-time-service/windows-2016-accurate-time

To disable the Hyper-V Time Provider, we recommend creating a new Group Policy template and targeting your Azure VMs.

Validate that your machine is synchronized to the Hyper-V Time Provider

Open command prompt and execute the following command: w32tm /query /status

If you see VM IC Time Synchronization Provider, the Guest OS is synchronized to the VM Host

Create a new group policy to disable the Hyper-V Time Provider (VM IC Time Synchronization)

  1. Create a new Group Policy and target it to an OU that contains the machines synchronized to the Hyper-V Time Provider
  2. Edit the new Group Policy Object
  3. Navigate to Computer configuration -> Preferences -> Windows Settings -> Registry and Add a new item

  4. Navigate to the following Key HKLM:SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\TimeProviders\VMICTimeProvider and select the Enabled Value
  5. Change the Value data to 00000000 and click OK

  6. Restart each of the Azure Virtual Machines or login to each machine and execute the following command to restart the Windows Time service: net stop w32time && net start w32time

  7. Validate that the Source is now pointing to your NTP server/domain by running the following command: w32tm /query /status

[Tutorial] Gathering trace/event logs in ADFS v2.0 and v3.0

Problem:

Gathering trace/event logs in ADFS is not a trivial task.  The following article will show you how to gather these logs to further help investigate relying party trust issues or issues with end users authenticating to the service.  This tutorial will be leveraging ADFS v3.0 on Server 2012 R2.  The same steps should apply for v2.0 on Server 2008 R2.  This process does change slighting in ADFS on Server 2016 as the logging engine was rewritten.  Depending on demand, a second article will be released for ADFS on Server 2016.

Caviets:

Before beginning, as a side note, debugging in ADFS v2-3 is honestly a total PITA (pain in the… butt).  The problem with ADFS logging is logs are stored on the machines serving the requests, not centrally.  In this case, you will likely have to enable tracing on each ADFS server, or configure your load balancer/host file to temporarly route requests to a specific machine so you know which server to hunt down for the logs.  Likewise, as you will find at the end of the tutorial, the logs gathered from ADFS are very verbose.  Take some time to familiarize yourself with the logs of a working request vs a failure to get used to what logs are actually meaningful.

Tutorial:

Enable list of events/audits to be logged

  1. Login to one of your ADFS servers that you believe will be authenticating the end users
  2. Open Server Manager

  3. In Server Manager, select Tools -> AD FS Management
  4. In AD FS Management, select AD FS in the top left and select Edit Federation Service Properties…
  5. Click on the Events tab and check all the items you wish to log and click OK

Enable tracing

  1. Open Server Manager
  2. Select Tools -> Event Viewer
  3. In Event Viewer, select View in the top menu, and select Show Analytic and Debug Logs
  4. Expand Applications and Services Logs, expand AD FS Tracing, and select Debug
    1. Note: In ADFS v2, the AD FS Tracing folder will be called AD FS 2.0 Tracing
  5. When you are ready to begin collecting logs, right click on Debug and select Enable Log
  6. Click OK when prompted to write over the existing event logs
    1. Note: Each time you enable/disable AD FS Tracing, Event Viewer will purge your last results.  I highly recommend you export your logs if you need them for comparison at a later time.
  7. At this point, recreate the issue, error, or login to the relying party you want to debug.
  8. Once you have recreated the error or logged in, go back to Event Viewer, right click on Debug and select Disable Log
  9. At this point, you should have some events captured to further analyse 🙂
  10. Optional Step: Right click on Debug and select Save All Events As…  This will export to a evtx file, in which this can be sent to another team for analysis or you can reference the logs at a later time.
    1. Note: If you are sending the events over to another team for analysis, zip the logs as it will greatly decrease the file size 🙂

Common error when enabling Debug logging

One error I typically see is the following:

AD FS Debug – The requested operation cannot be performed over an enabled direct channel.  The channel must first be disabled before performing the requested operation

This error is caused by a misconfiguration on the logging properties of the Debug log.  Please verify that you have not manually enabled the debug log nor have the maximum log file size set to Overwrite events as needed.

To fix, right click on Debug and select Properties

Typically, the screenshot below is an example of the incorrect settings used; make sure that Enable Logging is unchecked and is Do not overwrite events ( Clear logs manually ) is checked

Here is a picture of the correct settings for the AD FS Tracing Debug Logs; at which point, once the settings are applied, you should no longer receive this error when conducting your debug/trace logging.

[Tutorial] Using Fiddler to debug SAML tokens on Mobile Devices (Android)

Use Case:

This guide will go over configuring Fiddler to intercept traffic from mobile devices for debugging purposes.  This scenario can be beneficial in tracing/debugging SAML tokens issued from your IdP for a mobile application to consume.  We will be able to validate all traffic flowing in/from the Android device.

Configuring/Setting up Fiddler:

  1. Grab the latest copy of Fiddler from their website for Windows (it is a free download)
    1. https://www.telerik.com/download/fiddlerDownload Fiddler
  2. Install Fiddler on your local machine
    1. Double click fiddlersetup.exe
      Run fiddlersetup
    2. Agree to the End User License Agreement
      Fiddler Install - Accept EULA
    3. Set the installation directory and click Install
      Fiddler Install - Destination Folder
    4. Close the setup wizard
      Fiddler Install - Close Installation
  3. Launch Fiddler
    Launch Fiddler - Windows 10
  4. Click Cancel if prompted about AppContainers
    Fiddler - AppContainer Configuration - Cancel
  5. With Fiddler open click on Tools -> Telerik Fiddler Options…
    Fiddler - Tools - Telerik Fiddler Options
  6. Click on the Connections tab and check Allow remote computers to connect

  7. You will receive a dialog box saying it will need to restart.  Click OK and close out of Fiddler
  8. Once you relaunch Fiddler, click on the down arrow (if shown) and hover over the Online icon

At this point, Fiddler is configured properly, let’s shift over to your mobile device. We’ll shift gears to configuring the Android device to push traffic to Fiddler.

Configuring an Android device
(Android v6.0.1 at the time of writing)

  1. Slide down the notifications drawer from the top of the screen and hit the Settings (gear) icon in the top right
  2. Select Wi-Fi under the Wireless and networks section
  3. Select the wireless network you are connected to and click Edit

  4. Scroll down and check Show advanced options

  5. Select the drop-down for Proxy and choose Manual

  6. Type in the IP address gathered from Fiddler for the Proxy host name and set the Proxy Port to 8888 and click Save
    1. Note: 8888 is the default port for Fiddler, the port can be found under Fiddler -> Telerik Fiddler Options -> Connections tab
  7. Next, open up your web browser and navigate to http://ipv4.fiddler:8888
    1. Note: This is a small webpage served by the Fiddler application to validate the proxy settings are correct.  Likewise, we will use this page in the next step for SSL decryption
  8. On the Fiddler Echo Service page, click on the You can download the FiddlerRoot Certificate link
    1. Note: This download Fiddler’s root certificate to allow us to intercept SSL traffic for debugging purposes
  9. Once the certificate has downloaded, type Fiddler as the Certificate name and click OK

  10. Optional step: Open up your web browser and navigate to a website using SSL (I did https://google.com)
    1. Note: Here you can validate that the SSL certificate used is Fiddler’s root certificate.  This is a good sign that we are intercepting the traffic

Turn off Fiddler from intercepting SSL traffic

Remove the proxy settings

  1. Slide down the notifications drawer from the top of the screen and hit the Settings (gear) icon in the top right
  2. Select Wi-Fi under the Wireless and networks section
  3. Select the wireless network you are connected to and click Edit

  4. Scroll down and check Show advanced options (you should see your old proxy settings unlike my screenshot below)

  5. Select the drop-down for Proxy and choose None

  6. Select Save
  7. At this point, you should be able to capture the traffic through the Fiddler application on your Windows machine; see the screenshot below showing traffic from the android device
    1. NOTE/TIP: If you turn off capturing, you will turn off capturing on Windows, but not for the mobile device.  This can help cut down on the “noise” in getting your sample/debug logs.

Remove the Fiddler SSL certificate

  1. Slide down the notifications drawer from the top of the screen and hit the Settings (gear) icon in the top right
  2. Select Security

  3. Select Trusted credentials

  4. Select the User tab on the Trusted credentials window
  5. Scroll down through the certificate information and towards the bottom you will see a Remove button; press the REMOVE button.
    1. Note: You have to scroll the text, there is no scrollbar until you start the scrolling gesture

 

List of time zones consumed by Azure

When creating Azure Automation scripts, you may have to reference time zones by name.  Below is a table of acceptable values you may use in your scripts to denote the proper time zone.

Name of Time Zone Time
Dateline Standard Time (UTC-12:00) International Date Line West
UTC-11 (UTC-11:00) Coordinated Universal Time-11
Hawaiian Standard Time (UTC-10:00) Hawaii
Alaskan Standard Time (UTC-09:00) Alaska
Pacific Standard Time (Mexico) (UTC-08:00) Baja California
Pacific Standard Time (UTC-08:00) Pacific Time (US & Canada)
US Mountain Standard Time (UTC-07:00) Arizona
Mountain Standard Time (Mexico) (UTC-07:00) Chihuahua, La Paz, Mazatlan
Mountain Standard Time (UTC-07:00) Mountain Time (US & Canada)
Central America Standard Time (UTC-06:00) Central America
Central Standard Time (UTC-06:00) Central Time (US & Canada)
Central Standard Time (Mexico) (UTC-06:00) Guadalajara, Mexico City, Monterrey
Canada Central Standard Time (UTC-06:00) Saskatchewan
SA Pacific Standard Time (UTC-05:00) Bogota, Lima, Quito, Rio Branco
Eastern Standard Time (Mexico) (UTC-05:00) Chetumal
Eastern Standard Time (UTC-05:00) Eastern Time (US & Canada)
US Eastern Standard Time (UTC-05:00) Indiana (East)
Venezuela Standard Time (UTC-04:30) Caracas
Paraguay Standard Time (UTC-04:00) Asuncion
Atlantic Standard Time (UTC-04:00) Atlantic Time (Canada)
Central Brazilian Standard Time (UTC-04:00) Cuiaba
SA Western Standard Time (UTC-04:00) Georgetown, La Paz, Manaus, San Juan
Newfoundland Standard Time (UTC-03:30) Newfoundland
E. South America Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Brasilia
SA Eastern Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Cayenne, Fortaleza
Argentina Standard Time (UTC-03:00) City of Buenos Aires
Greenland Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Greenland
Montevideo Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Montevideo
Bahia Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Salvador
Pacific SA Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Santiago
UTC-02 (UTC-02:00) Coordinated Universal Time-02
Azores Standard Time (UTC-01:00) Azores
Cape Verde Standard Time (UTC-01:00) Cabo Verde Is.
Morocco Standard Time (UTC) Casablanca
UTC (UTC) Coordinated Universal Time
GMT Standard Time (UTC) Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London
Greenwich Standard Time (UTC) Monrovia, Reykjavik
W. Europe Standard Time (UTC+01:00) Amsterdam, Berlin, Bern, Rome, Stockholm, Vienna
Central Europe Standard Time (UTC+01:00) Belgrade, Bratislava, Budapest, Ljubljana, Prague
Romance Standard Time (UTC+01:00) Brussels, Copenhagen, Madrid, Paris
Central European Standard Time (UTC+01:00) Sarajevo, Skopje, Warsaw, Zagreb
W. Central Africa Standard Time (UTC+01:00) West Central Africa
Namibia Standard Time (UTC+01:00) Windhoek
Jordan Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Amman
GTB Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Athens, Bucharest
Middle East Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Beirut
Egypt Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Cairo
Syria Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Damascus
E. Europe Standard Time (UTC+02:00) E. Europe
South Africa Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Harare, Pretoria
FLE Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Helsinki, Kyiv, Riga, Sofia, Tallinn, Vilnius
Turkey Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Istanbul
Israel Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Jerusalem
Kaliningrad Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Kaliningrad (RTZ 1)
Libya Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Tripoli
Arabic Standard Time (UTC+03:00) Baghdad
Arab Standard Time (UTC+03:00) Kuwait, Riyadh
Belarus Standard Time (UTC+03:00) Minsk
Russian Standard Time (UTC+03:00) Moscow, St. Petersburg, Volgograd (RTZ 2)
E. Africa Standard Time (UTC+03:00) Nairobi
Iran Standard Time (UTC+03:30) Tehran
Arabian Standard Time (UTC+04:00) Abu Dhabi, Muscat
Azerbaijan Standard Time (UTC+04:00) Baku
Russia Time Zone 3 (UTC+04:00) Izhevsk, Samara (RTZ 3)
Mauritius Standard Time (UTC+04:00) Port Louis
Georgian Standard Time (UTC+04:00) Tbilisi
Caucasus Standard Time (UTC+04:00) Yerevan
Afghanistan Standard Time (UTC+04:30) Kabul
West Asia Standard Time (UTC+05:00) Ashgabat, Tashkent
Ekaterinburg Standard Time (UTC+05:00) Ekaterinburg (RTZ 4)
Pakistan Standard Time (UTC+05:00) Islamabad, Karachi
India Standard Time (UTC+05:30) Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi
Sri Lanka Standard Time (UTC+05:30) Sri Jayawardenepura
Nepal Standard Time (UTC+05:45) Kathmandu
Central Asia Standard Time (UTC+06:00) Astana
Bangladesh Standard Time (UTC+06:00) Dhaka
N. Central Asia Standard Time (UTC+06:00) Novosibirsk (RTZ 5)
Myanmar Standard Time (UTC+06:30) Yangon (Rangoon)
SE Asia Standard Time (UTC+07:00) Bangkok, Hanoi, Jakarta
North Asia Standard Time (UTC+07:00) Krasnoyarsk (RTZ 6)
China Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Beijing, Chongqing, Hong Kong, Urumqi
North Asia East Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Irkutsk (RTZ 7)
Singapore Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Kuala Lumpur, Singapore
W. Australia Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Perth
Taipei Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Taipei
Ulaanbaatar Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Ulaanbaatar
Tokyo Standard Time (UTC+09:00) Osaka, Sapporo, Tokyo
Korea Standard Time (UTC+09:00) Seoul
Yakutsk Standard Time (UTC+09:00) Yakutsk (RTZ 8)
Cen. Australia Standard Time (UTC+09:30) Adelaide
AUS Central Standard Time (UTC+09:30) Darwin
E. Australia Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Brisbane
AUS Eastern Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Canberra, Melbourne, Sydney
West Pacific Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Guam, Port Moresby
Tasmania Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Hobart
Magadan Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Magadan
Vladivostok Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Vladivostok, Magadan (RTZ 9)
Russia Time Zone 10 (UTC+11:00) Chokurdakh (RTZ 10)
Central Pacific Standard Time (UTC+11:00) Solomon Is., New Caledonia
Russia Time Zone 11 (UTC+12:00) Anadyr, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (RTZ 11)
New Zealand Standard Time (UTC+12:00) Auckland, Wellington
UTC+12 (UTC+12:00) Coordinated Universal Time+12
Fiji Standard Time (UTC+12:00) Fiji
Tonga Standard Time (UTC+13:00) Nuku’alofa
Samoa Standard Time (UTC+13:00) Samoa
Line Islands Standard Time (UTC+14:00) Kiritimati Island

[Tutorial] Using Fiddler to debug SAML tokens issued from ADFS

Problem:

Many applications want to federate with leverage certain attributes like nameid (nameidentifier), but the problem is the format is wildly different from one application to another.  In this case, one application might use a unique value like an employee ID, another UPN, another email address, and so on.  Or maybe it isn’t an attribute, but you are leveraging SHA1 as your signature hashing algorithm and the application is looking for MD5.

In this case, sometimes you may not be sure what you are sending to the application and are looking to the vendor to help you understand what you need to change in ADFS or if you are working on a custom application, need help debugging your claims rules to integrate into that application.  In this case, I will show you how to leverage Fiddler to acquire the SAML Tokens issued by ADFS to validate what attributes/values you are passing to the federate application.

Tutorial:

  1. Grab the latest copy of Fiddler from their website (it is a free download)
    1. https://www.telerik.com/download/fiddlerDownload Fiddler
  2. Install Fiddler on your local machine
    1. Double click fiddlersetup.exe
      Run fiddlersetup
    2. Agree to the End User License Agreement
      Fiddler Install - Accept EULA
    3. Set the installation directory and click Install
      Fiddler Install - Destination Folder
    4. Close the setup wizard
      Fiddler Install - Close Installation
  3. Launch Fiddler
    Launch Fiddler - Windows 10
  4. Click Cancel if prompted about AppContainers
    Fiddler - AppContainer Configuration - Cancel
  5. With Fiddler open click on Tools -> Telerik Fiddler Options…
    Fiddler - Tools - Telerik Fiddler Options
  6. Click on the HTTPS tab and check Decrypt HTTPS traffic and click OK
    1. Note: you may be prompted to trust a certificate.  You must trust the certificate so Fiddler can intercept your encrypted traffic and decrypt it.  Fiddler will not permanently capture traffic when the application is closed.
      Fiddler - Tools - Telerik Fiddler Options - HTTPS - Decrypt HTTPS traffic
  7. Close out of Fiddler
    Fiddler - Close
  8. Open Fiddler
    Launch Fiddler - Windows 10
  9. Open up Internet Explorer in one window and Fiddler side-by-side.  Drag the Crosshair icon onto Internet Explorer.  This will target only traffic in this process (browser window) to help filter down intercepted traffic.
    Fiddler - Process Selector - Drag Drop
  10. Select the X icon with a dropdown and click Remove all to clear your trace
    Fiddler - X - Remove All
  11. Go to the url of the federated application and login.  In this case, I am going to use https://outlook.com/owa/jackstromberg.com; once you have logged into the application or received the error to your application upon login, click FileCapture Traffic to stop the logs
    Fiddler - File - Capture Traffic - ADFS
  12. Within your logs, look for the last 200 response from your ADFS server before being redirected to your application (which will not show up as a 302, since we are posting to the new URL)
    Fiddler - HTTPS 200 - ADFS - SAML Post
  13. Click on the Inspectors tab, and select the Raw tab at the bottom and copy the value from the hidden input tag with the name of wresult
    Fiddler - Inspectors - Raw - wresult - encoded html
  14. Paste the encoded HTML into my HTML Encoder/Decoder in the Encoded text box and click Decode.
    1. Note: The encoder/decoder is all JavaScript based that functions client/side, so no data will leave your network.
      JackStromberg - HTML Encoder - Decoder - SAML
  15. Copy the Decoded HTML and paste it into an XML formatter of your choice.  Here I am using Bing:
    Bing - XML Formatter - SAML Token
  16. Copy the result into Notepad and you can now read the information
    Notepad - SAML Decoded - Formatted XML

Going into the claim and how it works is outside the scope of this tutorial, but as you can see in the last screenshot above we have the raw SAML token we will send to the relying party trust to consume.  At this point, the vendor can be involved to help troubleshoot any values or attributes that are in an incorrect format.

[How-To] Deploy HUB Licensed VMs in Azure

What is HUB and why should I use it?

For customers that are looking to go to Azure and help cut down on some of the running costs by utilizing existing licensing they own from on-premises, Microsoft has released a program called Hybrid Use Benefit (HUB).  The Hybrid Use Benefit program essentially allows you to run  VMs in Azure at a reduced rate (cost of a Linux VM for example), under the assumption that you have volume license keys covering the core totals of VMs running in Azure.

Official information on this program can be found here: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/pricing/hybrid-use-benefit/

A Microsoft employee has created some instructions on how Microsoft customers can take use of this program.  Unfortunately, as outlined in the document, there is no way as of 6/27/2016 to take an existing VM in Azure and convert it to the HUB program.  A VM must originate from on-premises in order to take advantage of this program, there are no workarounds such as building the VM in Azure, downloading it to on-prem, and reuploading it back to Azure.  In this case, this article will cover the necessary steps (step by step) on getting a “HUB” VM deployed in Azure.

Update: October 24, 2016: HUB is now supported on Azure Site Recovery for failed over instances to Azure from another datacenter.  Information on leveraging HUB for ASR instances can be found here: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/blog/hybrid-use-benefit-migration-with-asr/

Goal: This article will focus on 3 items:

  1. How to properly configure a VHD for the HUB program
  2. How to upload the VHD into Azure
  3. How to deploy VMs from your VHD

1. How to properly configure a VHD for the HUB program

There are two ways you can bring a HUB image into Azure.  You can convert the ISO from Microsoft to a VHD directly, or you can install Hyper-V, update/customize the VM, and generalize it.

In this tutorial, we will go over converting the Microsoft provided ISO to VHD, under the assumption you do not have Hyper-V installed.  In the scenario where you do not have Hyper-V, but you want to customize the image before uploading it into Azure, I would recommend installing the Hyper-V role on your Windows 7/10 machine and creating the VHD from that.  The only caveat you will run into is you must run SysPrep before uploading the VHD into Azure, as outlined here.

Hyper-V Way

For the Windows 7/10 machines, you can install the Hyper-V role by navigating to Programs and Features, select Turn Windows features on or off
Control Panel - Programs and Features - Turn windows features on or off

Check Hyper-V from the list.
Control Panel - Programs and Features - Turn windows features on or off - Hyper-V

Additionally, installation via PowerShell or DISM is covered in this Microsoft blog post: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/virtualization/hyperv_on_windows/quick_start/walkthrough_install

Again, ensure after making changes to your VHD, you generalize the machine and shut it down as outlined here: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/documentation/articles/virtual-machines-windows-upload-image/

PowerShell Way

A few Microsoft employees/consultants have released a PowerShell script that will take a Microsoft provided ISO and convert/generalize it into VHD format.  We can simply take this converted VHD and upload it into Azure as-is.  Please note, the only downside to creating the VM this way is that the machine may not be completely patched, so you will have to rely on the machines doing Windows Updates once they make it into the lands of Azure.

Pro Tip: If you are going to create the VHD from an ISO, I would recommend doing this from an Azure VM.  Since the VHD/disk we are creating will originate from the source media of a “local instance”, your VM will deploy fine with HUB licensing.  The advantage of creating the VM in Azure is the upload of your VM will take significantly less time due to the high throughput of egress traffic in Azure.  When going through this tutorial, I ended up maxing out my storage account’s read rate before hitting network connectivity bottlenecks.  Please note, bandwidth fees may apply in Azure for utilizing this method though.

  1. Download the Convert-WindowsImage.ps1 script from Microsoft
    1. https://gallery.technet.microsoft.com/scriptcenter/Convert-WindowsImageps1-0fe23a8f
  2. Download your Windows Server ISO from the Microsoft Volume Licensing center
    1. https://www.microsoft.com/Licensing/servicecenter/default.aspx
  3. Open PowerShell as an Administrator
    Server 2012 - PowerShell - Run as Administrator
  4. Navigate to the directory that contains both the ISO and the Covert-WindowsImage.ps1 script
    Convert-WindowsImage and Windows Server ISO - PowerShell
  5. Execute the following command to pre-load (dot-source) the PowerShell function
    Convert-WindowsImage and Windows Server ISO - PowerShell - Load Function

    . .\Convert-WindowsImage.ps1
  6. Execute the following command
    Convert-WindowsImage and Windows Server ISO - PowerShell - Execute Function

    Convert-WindowsImage -SourcePath "en_windows_server_2012_r2_with_update_x64_dvd_6052708.ISO" -VHDFormat VHD -Edition "ServerDataCenterCore" -VHDPartitionStyle MBR -BCDinVHD NativeBoot -ExpandOnNativeBoot:$false -RemoteDesktopEnable -Verbose
  7. You should receive a “Done” message once the VHD has been created
    Convert-WindowsImage and Windows Server ISO - PowerShell - Execute Function -Completed

2. How to upload the VHD into Azure

First, you will need the latest Azure PowerShell Modules.  These can be downloaded for free from the Azure website.  If you are new to Azure, this will be a link to the Web Platform installer, in which the link below should automatically select the Azure PowerShell modules to be downloaded.  You do not need the Command Line installer if prompted, only the Azure PowerShell Modules.

https://www.microsoft.com/web/handlers/webpi.ashx/getinstaller/WindowsAzurePowershellGet.3f.3f.3fnew.appids

Web Platform Installer 5 - Microsoft Azure PowerShell

Once installed, complete the instructions below.

  1. Open up PowerShell
    Server 2012 - PowerShell - Run as Administrator
  2. Login to your Azure account
    Login-AzureRmAccount

    Login-AzureRmAccount
  3. Execute the following command below, substituting in the correct values applicable to your environment:
    -RessourceGroupName – Specifies the name of the resource group of the virtual machine.
    -Destination – Specifies the URI of a blob in Blob Storage. The parameter supports SAS URI, although patching scenarios destination cannot be an SAS URI.  My URL shows Premium storage, but Premium storage is not required for HUB.
    -LocalFilePath – Specifies the path of the local .vhd file.
    Login-AzureRmAccount - Add-AzureRmVhd - Completed

    Add-AzureRmVhd -ResourceGroupName Test -Destination "https://armpremiumstoragetest.blob.core.windows.net/vhds/WindowsServer2012R2-HUB-Image.vhd" -LocalFilePath "E:\Blog\9600.17415.amd64fre.winblue_r4.141028-1500_Server_ServerDatacenterCore_en-US.vhd"

3. How to deploy VMs from your VHD

Copy the template below:

{
  "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters": {
    "vmName": {
      "type": "string",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Name of the VM you wish to deploy"
      }
    },
	"VMStorageAccount": {
      "type": "string",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "This is the name of the your storage account to deploy the VM to"
      }
    },
	"virtualNetworkName": {
      "type": "string",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Name of the virtual network the VM should be deployed to"
      }
    },
	"subnetName": {
      "type": "string",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Name of the subnet the VM should be deployed to"
      }
    },
	"publicIPAddressName": {
      "type": "string",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Name of the public IP address for your VM."
      }
    },
    "dnsLabelPrefix": {
      "type": "string",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "DNS Label for the Public IP. Must be lowercase. It should match with the following regular expression: ^[a-z][a-z0-9-]{1,61}[a-z0-9]$ or it will raise an error."
      }
    },
    "adminUserName": {
      "type": "string",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "UserName for the Virtual Machine"
      }
    },
    "adminPassword": {
      "type": "securestring",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Password for the Virtual Machine"
      }
    },
	"publicIPAddressType": {
      "type": "string",
      "allowedValues": [
        "Dynamic",
        "Static"
      ],
	  "defaultValue": "Dynamic",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "IP Address type for the public IP of the VM"
      }
    },
    "vmSize": {
      "type": "string",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "This is the size of your VM"
      },
	  "defaultValue": "Standard_DS1_v2"
    }
  },
  "variables": {
    "location": "[resourceGroup().location]",
    "nicName": "[concat(parameters('vmName'),'nic')]",
	"osDiskVhdUri": "https://myosdiskvhduri.blob.core.windows.net/vhds/myimage.vhd",
	"osType": "Windows",
    "vnetID": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks',parameters('virtualNetworkName'))]",
    "subnet1Ref": "[concat(variables('vnetID'),'/subnets/',parameters('subnetName'))]",
    "osDiskVhdName": "[concat('https://',parameters('VMStorageAccount'),'.blob.core.windows.net/vhds/',parameters('vmName'),'-osDisk.vhd')]",
    "apiVersion": "2015-06-15"
  },
  "resources": [
    {
      "apiVersion": "[variables('apiVersion')]",
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses",
      "name": "[parameters('publicIPAddressName')]",
      "location": "[variables('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "publicIPAllocationMethod": "[parameters('publicIPAddressType')]",
        "dnsSettings": {
          "domainNameLabel": "[parameters('dnsLabelPrefix')]"
        }     
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion": "[variables('apiVersion')]",
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces",
      "name": "[variables('nicName')]",
      "location": "[variables('location')]",
      "dependsOn": [
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses/', parameters('publicIPAddressName'))]"
      ],
      "properties": {
        "ipConfigurations": [
          {
            "name": "ipconfig1",
            "properties": {
              "privateIPAllocationMethod": "Dynamic",
              "publicIPAddress": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses',parameters('publicIPAddressName'))]"
              },
              "subnet": {
                "id": "[variables('subnet1Ref')]"
              }
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion": "[variables('apiVersion')]",
      "type": "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines",
      "name": "[parameters('vmName')]",
      "location": "[variables('location')]",
      "dependsOn": [
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces/', variables('nicName'))]"
      ],
      "properties": {
        "licenseType": "Windows_Server",
        "hardwareProfile": {
          "vmSize": "[parameters('vmSize')]"
        },
        "osProfile": {
          "computerName": "[parameters('vmName')]",
          "adminUsername": "[parameters('adminUsername')]",
          "adminPassword": "[parameters('adminPassword')]"
                 },
        "storageProfile": {
          "osDisk": {
            "name": "[concat(parameters('vmName'),'-osDisk')]",
            "osType": "[variables('osType')]",
            "caching": "ReadWrite",
            "createOption": "FromImage",
            "image": {
              "uri": "[variables('osDiskVhdUri')]"
            },
            "vhd": {
              "uri": "[variables('osDiskVhdName')]"
            }
          }
        },
        "networkProfile": {
          "networkInterfaces": [
            {
              "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces',variables('nicName'))]"
            }
          ]
        },
        "diagnosticsProfile": {
          "bootDiagnostics": {
             "enabled": "true",
             "storageUri": "[concat('https://',parameters('VMStorageAccount'),'.blob.core.windows.net')]"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  ]
}
  1. Login to the Azure Portal
    1. https://portal.azure.com
  2. Select Browse, click Templates, click Add
    Azure - Browse - Templates - Add
  3. Type in a Name and Description, click OK
    Azure - Browse - Templates - Add - General
  4. Paste in the template above, ensure you change the osDiskVhdUri, and click OK
    Azure - Browse - Templates - Add - General - change uri
  5. Once you have deploy the script, click Add, select your template, and click DeployDeploy from Template

At this point, you should be able to deploy from the template and create your VM from the HUB licensed VHD! 🙂

Notes: The above script takes into account that you are deploying against standard storage.  You may need to edit the above script if you want to deploy to premium storage as diagnostics data does not support being deployed to a Premium Storage account as of 6/27/2016.

Notes: The above script assumes your Virtual Network and Subnet have been previously created.  It will not create a virtual network and subnet if they do not exist.

Enable SSO (Single Sign On) to On-Premises Exchange OWA (Outlook Web Access) via Azure AD Application Proxy

Wouldn’t it be awesome to the do the following with Outlook Web Access being published in your on-premises environment today?

  • Cheap proxy solution to prevent direct internet access to your servers
  • Mask the IPs of your on-premises infrastrucutre
  • Enable Azure MFA (Multi-Factor Authentication) for OWA?
  • Have a Single-Sign on experience into Outlook Web Application via federation?
  • Have the application be selectable from your “My Apps” page (myapps.microsoft.com)
  • Have the application be selectable from the “Waffle Menu” of Office 365

If you are looking for any of the above, you are in-luck and we can enable this easily through Azure AD Application Proxy.  If you organization is using Office 365 or Azure AD already and have licensing for Azure AD Premium or Basic, you are good to go.  If you have the Enterprise Mobility Suite, this will grant you to Azure AD Premium licensing which should make you good to go as well.

Configuration

  1. Pre-Requisite: Enable Kerberos Authentication for Outlook Web Access On-Premises
    1. Login to one of your domain controllers and open up Active Directory Users and Computers
      Server Manager - Active Directory Users and Computers
    2. Find the Computer object within your organization we will run the Azure AD Connector on later in the tutorial and right click Properties on it
      Active Directory Users and Computers - Computers - OWA - Properties
    3. Select the Delegation tab, select Trust this computer for delegation to specified services only, check Use any authentication protocol, and click on Add…
      Active Directory Users and Computers - Computers - OWA - Properties - Delegation - Add
    4. Select Users or Computers…
      Active Directory Users and Computers - Computers - OWA - Properties - Delegation - Add - users or Computers
    5. Type in the machine name and click OK
      Active Directory Users and Computers - Computers - OWA - Properties - Delegation - Add - users or Computers - Select Users or Computers
    6. Select http and click OK
      Active Directory Users and Computers - Computers - OWA - Properties - Delegation - Add - users or Computers - http
    7. Click OK on the Add Services page
  2. Pre-Requisite: Enable Exchange On-Premises to use Integrated Windows Authentication (instructions for Exchange 2010 or 2013 can be found below)
    1. Exchange 2010
      1. Open the Exchange Management Console for your Exchange server
        Exchange Management Console (2010)
      2. Expand Server Configuration, select Client Access, under Outlook Web App, right click on your web app and select Properties
        Exchange Management Console (2010) - Outlook Web App
      3. Select the Authentication tab and check Use one or more standard authentication methods.  Once checked, check Integrated Windows authentication and click the Apply and OK buttons.
        Exchange Management Console (2010) - Outlook Web App Properties - Authentication - Integrated Windows Authentication
      4. Open a command prompt
        cmd as Administrator
      5. Execute the iisreset command
        cmd - iisreset
    2. Exchange 2013
      1. Open the Exchange Administrative Center
        Exchange Administrative Center (2013)
      2. Login to the admin center, click on Servers and select the Virtual Directories tab
        Exchange Administrative Center (2013) - admin center - servers -virtual directories
      3. Select server and then double click on the OWA Virtual Directory and select the applications tab
        Exchange Administrative Center (2013) - admin center - servers -virtual directories - owa - authentication
      4. On the authentication tab, select Use one or more standard authentication methods, select Integrated Windows authentication, and click save
        Exchange Administrative Center (2013) - admin center - servers -virtual directories - owa - authentication - integrated windows authentication
      5. Open a command prompt
        Elevated Command Prompt
      6. Execute the iisrest command
        cmd - iisreset
  3. Login to the Azure AD Portal
    1. https://manage.windowsazure.com
      1. Note: As of 6/2/2016, Azure Active Directory has not been published in the new Azure Portal.  However, this will change in the future 🙂
  4. Select Active Directory on the left side
    Azure Active Directory - Classic Portal
  5. Select your Azure Active Directory instance
    Azure Active Directory - Instance - Classic Portal
  6. Select Applications at the top of menu
    Azure Active Directory - Instance - Applications - Classic Portal
  7. Select Publish an application that will be accessible from outside your network
    Azure Active Directory - Instance - Applications - Add - Classic Portal
  8. Enter in the following information for the application:
    1. Name: Outlook Web Access
    2. Internal URL: https://owa.domain.com/owa/ (this is the internal URL to owa)
    3. Preauthentication Method: Azure Active Directory
    4. Select the Checkmark
      Azure Active Directory - Instance - Applications - Add - App Proxy - Classic Portal
  9. Click on the Configure tab
    Azure Active Directory - Instance - Applications - OWA - Configure - Classic Portal
  10. On the Configure tab, use the following configuration
    1. Internal Authentication Method: Integrated Windows Authentication
      1. Note: If we cannot do Kerberos based authentication (Integrated Windows Authentication) in your environment, you can leave this blank and continue to use Azure AD Application proxy, however the end user will be prompted for credentials just as if they browsed directly to OWA.
    2. Internal Application SPN: http/owa.domain.com
      1. This is the Service Principal Name to the Exchange Server.  The value for this was provided earlier in this tutorial.
    3. Click Save
      Azure Active Directory - Instance - Applications - OWA - Configure - Settings - Classic Portal
  11. Click on the Cloud icon with a lighting bolt and select Download a connector
    Azure Active Directory - Instance - Applications - OWA - Configure - Classic Portal

    1. Check the I accept the license terms and privacy agreement checkbox and click Download
      Azure AD Application Proxy Connector Download
    2. Note: Although the download has a generic name, the download is customized specifically for your application (Outlook Web Access in this case).  If you create other applications within your Azure AD tenant, make sure you always use the Download button inside of each application so it generates the correct installer.
  12. Copy the AADApplicationProxyConnectorInstaller.exe connector to any server in your environment that can access your OWA instance internally and run the installer
    AADApplicationProxyConnectorInstaller Downloaded
  13. Check I agree to the license terms and conditions and click Install
    Microsoft Azure Active Directory Application Proxy Connector - I agree
  14. Type in your Global Administrator credentials to register the agent to your Azure AD tenant and click Sign in
    Microsoft Azure Active Directory Application Proxy Connector - Credential Prompt
  15. Click Close if it shows Setup Success
    Microsoft Azure Active Directory Application Proxy Connector - Success

    1. Optional: You can run the Connector Troubleshooter if you would like.  It will install a quick application that will show you the results of the test in your web browser once it has completed.
      Azure AD Application Proxy Connector Troubleshooter
  16. Click on Users and Groups at the top of the Azure AD portal
    1. Search for the group or users you want to assign to this, select it, and click the Assign button
      Azure Active Directory - Instance - Applications - OWA - Users and Groups - Assign

      1. Note: This group could be synchronized from on-premises to Azure AD or created in the cloud
      2. Note: Assigning a user or group to this application will automatically make the application show up in the My Apps portal
      3. Note: Users or Groups must be defined to use the application or they will receive an error upon logging in

Test

  1. Login to https://myapps.microsoft.com as one of the assigned users to the Outlook Web Access application
  2. Select the Outlook Web Access application

If all went well, you should be logged into Outlook Web Access on-premises and see your corresponding mailbox.  At this point, I would proceed with adding a vanity domain name that matches your organization as well as corresponding SSL certificate for the domain name instead of leveraging the default msapprpoxy.net domain name.  Additionally, you can always find a nice little icon for the application to make it look like OWA as well 🙂

Creating self-signed certificates with makecert

If you are even in a bind and need a quick self-signed SSL cert and have the Windows SDK installed on your machine, there’s a chance you may have the makecert utility and can generate a quick self-signed SSL cert.

The command is as follows:

makecert -r -pe -n “CN=SelfSigned SSL” -a sha1 -ss My -len 2048 -sy 24 -b 01/01/2015 -e 01/01/2050

A complete list of each of the switches can be found here:
https://msdn.microsoft.com/library/windows/desktop/aa386968.aspx

Additionally, a nice MSDN article has been posted on this subject as well: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff699202.aspx

MakeCert is available as part of the Windows SDK, which you can download from http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?linkid=84091