Monthly Archives: January 2017

[Tutorial] Gathering trace/event logs in ADFS v2.0 and v3.0

Problem:

Gathering trace/event logs in ADFS is not a trivial task.  The following article will show you how to gather these logs to further help investigate relying party trust issues or issues with end users authenticating to the service.  This tutorial will be leveraging ADFS v3.0 on Server 2012 R2.  The same steps should apply for v2.0 on Server 2008 R2.  This process does change slighting in ADFS on Server 2016 as the logging engine was rewritten.  Depending on demand, a second article will be released for ADFS on Server 2016.

Caviets:

Before beginning, as a side note, debugging in ADFS v2-3 is honestly a total PITA (pain in the… butt).  The problem with ADFS logging is logs are stored on the machines serving the requests, not centrally.  In this case, you will likely have to enable tracing on each ADFS server, or configure your load balancer/host file to temporarly route requests to a specific machine so you know which server to hunt down for the logs.  Likewise, as you will find at the end of the tutorial, the logs gathered from ADFS are very verbose.  Take some time to familiarize yourself with the logs of a working request vs a failure to get used to what logs are actually meaningful.

Tutorial:

Enable list of events/audits to be logged

  1. Login to one of your ADFS servers that you believe will be authenticating the end users
  2. Open Server Manager

  3. In Server Manager, select Tools -> AD FS Management
  4. In AD FS Management, select AD FS in the top left and select Edit Federation Service Properties…
  5. Click on the Events tab and check all the items you wish to log and click OK

Enable tracing

  1. Open Server Manager
  2. Select Tools -> Event Viewer
  3. In Event Viewer, select View in the top menu, and select Show Analytic and Debug Logs
  4. Expand Applications and Services Logs, expand AD FS Tracing, and select Debug
    1. Note: In ADFS v2, the AD FS Tracing folder will be called AD FS 2.0 Tracing
  5. When you are ready to begin collecting logs, right click on Debug and select Enable Log
  6. Click OK when prompted to write over the existing event logs
    1. Note: Each time you enable/disable AD FS Tracing, Event Viewer will purge your last results.  I highly recommend you export your logs if you need them for comparison at a later time.
  7. At this point, recreate the issue, error, or login to the relying party you want to debug.
  8. Once you have recreated the error or logged in, go back to Event Viewer, right click on Debug and select Disable Log
  9. At this point, you should have some events captured to further analyse 🙂
  10. Optional Step: Right click on Debug and select Save All Events As…  This will export to a evtx file, in which this can be sent to another team for analysis or you can reference the logs at a later time.
    1. Note: If you are sending the events over to another team for analysis, zip the logs as it will greatly decrease the file size 🙂

Common error when enabling Debug logging

One error I typically see is the following:

AD FS Debug – The requested operation cannot be performed over an enabled direct channel.  The channel must first be disabled before performing the requested operation

This error is caused by a misconfiguration on the logging properties of the Debug log.  Please verify that you have not manually enabled the debug log nor have the maximum log file size set to Overwrite events as needed.

To fix, right click on Debug and select Properties

Typically, the screenshot below is an example of the incorrect settings used; make sure that Enable Logging is unchecked and is Do not overwrite events ( Clear logs manually ) is checked

Here is a picture of the correct settings for the AD FS Tracing Debug Logs; at which point, once the settings are applied, you should no longer receive this error when conducting your debug/trace logging.

[Tutorial] Using Fiddler to debug SAML tokens on Mobile Devices (Android)

Use Case:

This guide will go over configuring Fiddler to intercept traffic from mobile devices for debugging purposes.  This scenario can be beneficial in tracing/debugging SAML tokens issued from your IdP for a mobile application to consume.  We will be able to validate all traffic flowing in/from the Android device.

Configuring/Setting up Fiddler:

  1. Grab the latest copy of Fiddler from their website for Windows (it is a free download)
    1. https://www.telerik.com/download/fiddlerDownload Fiddler
  2. Install Fiddler on your local machine
    1. Double click fiddlersetup.exe
      Run fiddlersetup
    2. Agree to the End User License Agreement
      Fiddler Install - Accept EULA
    3. Set the installation directory and click Install
      Fiddler Install - Destination Folder
    4. Close the setup wizard
      Fiddler Install - Close Installation
  3. Launch Fiddler
    Launch Fiddler - Windows 10
  4. Click Cancel if prompted about AppContainers
    Fiddler - AppContainer Configuration - Cancel
  5. With Fiddler open click on Tools -> Telerik Fiddler Options…
    Fiddler - Tools - Telerik Fiddler Options
  6. Click on the Connections tab and check Allow remote computers to connect

  7. You will receive a dialog box saying it will need to restart.  Click OK and close out of Fiddler
  8. Once you relaunch Fiddler, click on the down arrow (if shown) and hover over the Online icon

At this point, Fiddler is configured properly, let’s shift over to your mobile device. We’ll shift gears to configuring the Android device to push traffic to Fiddler.

Configuring an Android device
(Android v6.0.1 at the time of writing)

  1. Slide down the notifications drawer from the top of the screen and hit the Settings (gear) icon in the top right
  2. Select Wi-Fi under the Wireless and networks section
  3. Select the wireless network you are connected to and click Edit

  4. Scroll down and check Show advanced options

  5. Select the drop-down for Proxy and choose Manual

  6. Type in the IP address gathered from Fiddler for the Proxy host name and set the Proxy Port to 8888 and click Save
    1. Note: 8888 is the default port for Fiddler, the port can be found under Fiddler -> Telerik Fiddler Options -> Connections tab
  7. Next, open up your web browser and navigate to http://ipv4.fiddler:8888
    1. Note: This is a small webpage served by the Fiddler application to validate the proxy settings are correct.  Likewise, we will use this page in the next step for SSL decryption
  8. On the Fiddler Echo Service page, click on the You can download the FiddlerRoot Certificate link
    1. Note: This download Fiddler’s root certificate to allow us to intercept SSL traffic for debugging purposes
  9. Once the certificate has downloaded, type Fiddler as the Certificate name and click OK

  10. Optional step: Open up your web browser and navigate to a website using SSL (I did https://google.com)
    1. Note: Here you can validate that the SSL certificate used is Fiddler’s root certificate.  This is a good sign that we are intercepting the traffic

Turn off Fiddler from intercepting SSL traffic

Remove the proxy settings

  1. Slide down the notifications drawer from the top of the screen and hit the Settings (gear) icon in the top right
  2. Select Wi-Fi under the Wireless and networks section
  3. Select the wireless network you are connected to and click Edit

  4. Scroll down and check Show advanced options (you should see your old proxy settings unlike my screenshot below)

  5. Select the drop-down for Proxy and choose None

  6. Select Save
  7. At this point, you should be able to capture the traffic through the Fiddler application on your Windows machine; see the screenshot below showing traffic from the android device
    1. NOTE/TIP: If you turn off capturing, you will turn off capturing on Windows, but not for the mobile device.  This can help cut down on the “noise” in getting your sample/debug logs.

Remove the Fiddler SSL certificate

  1. Slide down the notifications drawer from the top of the screen and hit the Settings (gear) icon in the top right
  2. Select Security

  3. Select Trusted credentials

  4. Select the User tab on the Trusted credentials window
  5. Scroll down through the certificate information and towards the bottom you will see a Remove button; press the REMOVE button.
    1. Note: You have to scroll the text, there is no scrollbar until you start the scrolling gesture

 

List of time zones consumed by Azure

When creating Azure Automation scripts, you may have to reference time zones by name.  Below is a table of acceptable values you may use in your scripts to denote the proper time zone.

Name of Time Zone Time
Dateline Standard Time (UTC-12:00) International Date Line West
UTC-11 (UTC-11:00) Coordinated Universal Time-11
Hawaiian Standard Time (UTC-10:00) Hawaii
Alaskan Standard Time (UTC-09:00) Alaska
Pacific Standard Time (Mexico) (UTC-08:00) Baja California
Pacific Standard Time (UTC-08:00) Pacific Time (US & Canada)
US Mountain Standard Time (UTC-07:00) Arizona
Mountain Standard Time (Mexico) (UTC-07:00) Chihuahua, La Paz, Mazatlan
Mountain Standard Time (UTC-07:00) Mountain Time (US & Canada)
Central America Standard Time (UTC-06:00) Central America
Central Standard Time (UTC-06:00) Central Time (US & Canada)
Central Standard Time (Mexico) (UTC-06:00) Guadalajara, Mexico City, Monterrey
Canada Central Standard Time (UTC-06:00) Saskatchewan
SA Pacific Standard Time (UTC-05:00) Bogota, Lima, Quito, Rio Branco
Eastern Standard Time (Mexico) (UTC-05:00) Chetumal
Eastern Standard Time (UTC-05:00) Eastern Time (US & Canada)
US Eastern Standard Time (UTC-05:00) Indiana (East)
Venezuela Standard Time (UTC-04:30) Caracas
Paraguay Standard Time (UTC-04:00) Asuncion
Atlantic Standard Time (UTC-04:00) Atlantic Time (Canada)
Central Brazilian Standard Time (UTC-04:00) Cuiaba
SA Western Standard Time (UTC-04:00) Georgetown, La Paz, Manaus, San Juan
Newfoundland Standard Time (UTC-03:30) Newfoundland
E. South America Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Brasilia
SA Eastern Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Cayenne, Fortaleza
Argentina Standard Time (UTC-03:00) City of Buenos Aires
Greenland Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Greenland
Montevideo Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Montevideo
Bahia Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Salvador
Pacific SA Standard Time (UTC-03:00) Santiago
UTC-02 (UTC-02:00) Coordinated Universal Time-02
Azores Standard Time (UTC-01:00) Azores
Cape Verde Standard Time (UTC-01:00) Cabo Verde Is.
Morocco Standard Time (UTC) Casablanca
UTC (UTC) Coordinated Universal Time
GMT Standard Time (UTC) Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London
Greenwich Standard Time (UTC) Monrovia, Reykjavik
W. Europe Standard Time (UTC+01:00) Amsterdam, Berlin, Bern, Rome, Stockholm, Vienna
Central Europe Standard Time (UTC+01:00) Belgrade, Bratislava, Budapest, Ljubljana, Prague
Romance Standard Time (UTC+01:00) Brussels, Copenhagen, Madrid, Paris
Central European Standard Time (UTC+01:00) Sarajevo, Skopje, Warsaw, Zagreb
W. Central Africa Standard Time (UTC+01:00) West Central Africa
Namibia Standard Time (UTC+01:00) Windhoek
Jordan Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Amman
GTB Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Athens, Bucharest
Middle East Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Beirut
Egypt Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Cairo
Syria Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Damascus
E. Europe Standard Time (UTC+02:00) E. Europe
South Africa Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Harare, Pretoria
FLE Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Helsinki, Kyiv, Riga, Sofia, Tallinn, Vilnius
Turkey Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Istanbul
Israel Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Jerusalem
Kaliningrad Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Kaliningrad (RTZ 1)
Libya Standard Time (UTC+02:00) Tripoli
Arabic Standard Time (UTC+03:00) Baghdad
Arab Standard Time (UTC+03:00) Kuwait, Riyadh
Belarus Standard Time (UTC+03:00) Minsk
Russian Standard Time (UTC+03:00) Moscow, St. Petersburg, Volgograd (RTZ 2)
E. Africa Standard Time (UTC+03:00) Nairobi
Iran Standard Time (UTC+03:30) Tehran
Arabian Standard Time (UTC+04:00) Abu Dhabi, Muscat
Azerbaijan Standard Time (UTC+04:00) Baku
Russia Time Zone 3 (UTC+04:00) Izhevsk, Samara (RTZ 3)
Mauritius Standard Time (UTC+04:00) Port Louis
Georgian Standard Time (UTC+04:00) Tbilisi
Caucasus Standard Time (UTC+04:00) Yerevan
Afghanistan Standard Time (UTC+04:30) Kabul
West Asia Standard Time (UTC+05:00) Ashgabat, Tashkent
Ekaterinburg Standard Time (UTC+05:00) Ekaterinburg (RTZ 4)
Pakistan Standard Time (UTC+05:00) Islamabad, Karachi
India Standard Time (UTC+05:30) Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi
Sri Lanka Standard Time (UTC+05:30) Sri Jayawardenepura
Nepal Standard Time (UTC+05:45) Kathmandu
Central Asia Standard Time (UTC+06:00) Astana
Bangladesh Standard Time (UTC+06:00) Dhaka
N. Central Asia Standard Time (UTC+06:00) Novosibirsk (RTZ 5)
Myanmar Standard Time (UTC+06:30) Yangon (Rangoon)
SE Asia Standard Time (UTC+07:00) Bangkok, Hanoi, Jakarta
North Asia Standard Time (UTC+07:00) Krasnoyarsk (RTZ 6)
China Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Beijing, Chongqing, Hong Kong, Urumqi
North Asia East Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Irkutsk (RTZ 7)
Singapore Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Kuala Lumpur, Singapore
W. Australia Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Perth
Taipei Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Taipei
Ulaanbaatar Standard Time (UTC+08:00) Ulaanbaatar
Tokyo Standard Time (UTC+09:00) Osaka, Sapporo, Tokyo
Korea Standard Time (UTC+09:00) Seoul
Yakutsk Standard Time (UTC+09:00) Yakutsk (RTZ 8)
Cen. Australia Standard Time (UTC+09:30) Adelaide
AUS Central Standard Time (UTC+09:30) Darwin
E. Australia Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Brisbane
AUS Eastern Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Canberra, Melbourne, Sydney
West Pacific Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Guam, Port Moresby
Tasmania Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Hobart
Magadan Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Magadan
Vladivostok Standard Time (UTC+10:00) Vladivostok, Magadan (RTZ 9)
Russia Time Zone 10 (UTC+11:00) Chokurdakh (RTZ 10)
Central Pacific Standard Time (UTC+11:00) Solomon Is., New Caledonia
Russia Time Zone 11 (UTC+12:00) Anadyr, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (RTZ 11)
New Zealand Standard Time (UTC+12:00) Auckland, Wellington
UTC+12 (UTC+12:00) Coordinated Universal Time+12
Fiji Standard Time (UTC+12:00) Fiji
Tonga Standard Time (UTC+13:00) Nuku’alofa
Samoa Standard Time (UTC+13:00) Samoa
Line Islands Standard Time (UTC+14:00) Kiritimati Island